A common rule of thumb is to save 10% of your income each year for retirement. If you started in your 20’s and invested for 30-40 years, this may well be adequate. But if you currently aren’t saving at this level, 10% can seem like a daunting amount. And if you got a late start or had some financial set-backs along the way, you may need to save even more.
What can a late starter do to get caught up on their retirement goals? Here are 5 ideas to help you take positive steps forward.
1) Save half your raise. When you get a raise, before you receive your next paycheck, increase your 401(k) contribution by 50% of the raise. You’ll still see an increase in your paycheck, but have a better chance of keeping the money which is automatically withheld, rather than taking the cash and hoping to have some left over to invest at the end of the year. This strategy works well for careers which have predictable, steady raises.
2) Downsize. If your kids are out of the house, you may not be needing all the space in your current home. By downsizing to a smaller home, you may be able to free up some home equity and invest those proceeds into investments with a potentially higher return. Additionally, a smaller home will have much lower expenses, including utilities, insurance, and property taxes.
If you really want to make a big impact on your finances, you have to look at the big expenses. For someone in their 50’s or 60’s, cutting out a daily latte just isn’t going to make enough of a difference. Many people have an emotional attachment to their home, which is completely understandable. However, if downsizing makes sense for you, you should try to make that change as soon as possible. Your home is one of your largest expenses and you want to make sure that it isn’t holding you back from achieving other important goals.
3) Spousal IRAs. Most people are aware of the catch-up provisions available after age 50 in their 401(k) or 403(b) plans at work, but many couples aren’t aware of their eligibility to fund an IRA for a spouse who doesn’t work or who doesn’t have a retirement plan. For 2014, the IRA contribution limits are $5,500 or $6,500 if over age 50. Here are the rules for some common scenarios:
– If neither spouse is covered by an employer plan at work, then both can contribute to a Traditional IRA and deduct the contribution, with no income restrictions. Both can contribute to an IRA, even if only one spouse works.
– If only one spouse is covered by an employer retirement plan, then the other spouse can contribute to a deductible Traditional IRA, if their joint MAGI is below $181,000 (2014).
– My personal favorite: if either spouse does not have any IRAs, that spouse can contribute to a Back-Door Roth IRA. There are no income restrictions to this strategy.
4) Social Security for divorcees. A common reason why individuals are behind in their retirement saving is divorce. If you were married for at least 10 years, you are eligible for a Social Security benefit based on your ex-spouse’s earnings. Many divorcees are not aware of this because spousal benefits are never listed on your Social Security statement.
The spousal benefit does not impact your ex-spouse in any way and they will not know you are receiving a spousal benefit. You do not have to wait for (or even know if) your ex-spouse has started to receive their benefits. We’ve often found that someone who was out of the workforce to raise a family or had a limited earnings history will have a very small Social Security benefit based on their own earnings and isn’t aware they are eligible for a benefit from a high-earning ex-spouse.
Details: you must be at least 62, unmarried, and the spousal benefit will only apply if greater than your own benefit. To apply, you will need your ex-spouse’s name, date of birth, social security number, beginning/ending dates of marriage, and place of marriage.
5) Don’t get aggressive. For many investors, the temptation is to try to eke out extra return from their investment portfolio to make up for the fact that they are behind. They take a very aggressive approach or try to day trade. This is very risky and the results can be devastating. Invest appropriately for your risk tolerance, objectives, and time horizon, but stay diversified and don’t gamble your nest egg.