Backdoor Roth Going Away

Backdoor Roth Going Away?

Under the current proposals in Washington, the Backdoor Roth is going away. If approved, investors would not be allowed to convert any after-tax money in IRAs to a Roth IRA as of January 1, 2022. This would eliminate the Backdoor Roth strategy and also kill the “Mega-Backdoor Roth” used by funding after-tax contributions to a 401(k) plan.

We have been big fans of the Backdoor Roth IRA and have used the strategy for a number of clients. We will discuss what to do if the Backdoor Roth does indeed go away. But first, here’s some background on Roth IRAs.

The Backdoor Roth Strategy

There are two ways to get money into a Roth: through making a contribution or by doing a conversion. Contributions are limited to $6,000 a year, or $7,000 if you are 50 or older. For Roth IRAs, there are also income limits on who can contribute. For 2021, you can make a full Roth contribution if your Modified Adjusted Gross Income is below $125,000 (single) or $198,000 (married).

If your income is above these levels, the Backdoor Roth may be an option. Let’s say you made too much to contribute to a Roth. You could still make an after-tax contribution to a Traditional IRA and then convert it to your Roth. You would owe taxes on any gains. But, if you put in $6,000, after-tax, and immediately converted it, there would be zero gains. And zero taxes. Yeah, it’s a loophole to get around the income restrictions. But the IRS determined that it was legal and people have been doing it for years.

This change won’t happen until January 1. So, you can still complete a Backdoor Roth now through the end of the year. I have some clients who wait until April to do their IRAs, but this year, you had better do the Backdoor by December 31. If you are eligible for the Backdoor, you should do it. Why would you not put $6,000 into an account that will grow Tax-Free for the rest of your life? Couples could do $12,000 or up to $14,000 if they’re over 50.

Instead of the Backdoor Roth…

Your 401(k) Plan may offer a Roth option. Many people are not maximizing their 401(k) contributions. You can contribute $19,500 to your 401(k), or $26,000 if over 50. Let’s say you are currently contributing $12,000 to your 401(k) and $6,000 to a Backdoor Roth. Change that to $12,000 to your Traditional 401(k) and $6,000 to your Roth 401(k). You can split up your $19,500 in contributions however you want between the Traditional and Roth buckets. I often find that with couples that there is room to increase contributions for one or both spouses.

Self-employed? Me, too. I do a Self-Employed 401(k) through TD Ameritrade. Through my plan, I can also make Traditional and Roth Contributions. And I can do Profit-Sharing contributions on top of the $19,500. It’s better than a SEP-IRA, and there is no annual fee. I can set up a Self-Employed 401(k) for you, too.

What if you have both W-2 and Self-Employment Income? In this case, you can maximize your 401(k) at your W-2 job and then contribute to a SEP for your self-employment. Contact me for details.

Health Savings Accounts. HSAs are the only account where you get both an upfront tax-deduction and the money grows tax-free for qualified expenses. And there’s no income limit on an HSA. As long as you are participating in an HSA-compatible high deductible plan, you are eligible. If you are in the plan for all 12 months, you can contribute $3,600 (individual) or $7,200 (family) to an HSA this year.

529 Plans. You want to grow investments tax-free with no income limits and very high contribution limits? Well, that sounds like a 529 College Savings Plan. If your kids, grand-kids, or even great-grand-kids will go to college, you could be growing that money tax-free. They don’t even have to be born yet, you can change the beneficiary later. We can use 529 plans like an inter-generational educational trust that also grows tax-free. And 529s will pass outside of your Estate, if you are also following the current proposals to cut the Estate Tax Exemption from $11.7 million to $5 million.

ETFs in a Taxable Account. Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are very tax-efficient. Hold for over a year and you could qualify for long-term capital gains treatment. Today, long-term capital gains taxes are 15%, whereas your traditional IRA or 401(k) money will be taxed as ordinary income when withdrawn, which is 22% to 37% for most of my clients. Some clients will drop to the 12% tax bracket in retirement, which means their long-term capital gains rate will be 0%. A married couple can have taxable income of up to $81,050 and pay zero long-term capital gains! (Taxable income is after deductions. If a couple is taking the standard deduction of $25,100, that means they could have gross income of up to $106,150 and be paying zero capital gains.)

Tax-Deferred Annuity. Instead of holding bonds in a taxable account and paying taxes annually, consider a Fixed Annuity. Today, I saw the rates on 5-year annuities are back to 3%. An annuity will defer the payment of interest until withdrawn. There are no RMDs on Annuities, so you could defer these gains for a long-time, potentially. And if you are in a high tax bracket now, you could hold off on taking your interest until you are in a lower bracket in retirement.

Save on Taxes

If Congress does away with the Backdoor Roth, we will let you know. There are a lot of moving parts in this 2,400 page bill and some will change. Whatever happens, my job will remain to help investors achieve their goals. We invest for growth, but we know that it is the after-tax returns that matter most. So, my job remains to help you find the most efficient and effective methods to keep more of your investment return.

COVID Relief Bill

COVID Relief Bill Passes

A new bi-partisan COVID Relief bill passed Congress this week and will impact almost every American in a positive way. This stimulus legislation creates additional income and tax benefits to offset the economic damage of Coronavirus. The $900 Billion bill includes another stimulus payment to most Americans, an extension of unemployment benefits, and seven tax breaks. As of this morning, President Trump has not yet signed the bill.

$600 Stimulus Payment

The CARES Act provided many families with stimulus checks this summer. Those checks were for up to $1,200 per person and $500 per child. There will be a second stimulus check now, for $600 per person. Parents will receive an additional $600 for each dependent child they have under 17. Adult dependents are not eligible for a check.

Like the first round of checks, eligibility is based on your income. Single tax payers making under $75,000 are eligible for the full amount. Married tax payers need to make under $150,000. There is a phaseout for income above these thresholds.

Payments will be distributed via direct deposit, if your bank information is on file with the IRS. If not, like before, you will be mailed a pre-paid debit card. This payment will not be counted as taxable income. Payments should start in a week and are expected to be delivered much faster than the two months it took this summer.

These $600 payments are again based on your 2019 income, but will be considered an advanced tax credit on your 2020 income. What if your 2019 income was above $75,000, but your 2020 income was below? If you qualify on your 2020 income, the IRS will provide the $600 credit on your tax return in April. If they send you the $600 based on your 2019 income and your 2020 income is higher, you do not have to repay the tax credit. This is a slightly different process than the first round of checks, and will benefit people whose income fell in 2020.

Unemployment Benefits

The CARES Act provided $600 a week in Federal Unemployment Benefits, on top of State Unemployment Benefits. This amount was set to run out on December 26. The new COVID Relief Bill provides an 11-week extension with a $300/week Federal payment. Now, unemployed workers will have access to up to 50 weeks of benefits, through March 14. Unfortunately, because of how late the legislation was passed, states may be unable to process the new money in time. So, there may be a gap of a few weeks before benefits resume.

Seven Other Tax Benefits

  1. Child Tax Credit and Earned Income Tax Credit. Under the new legislation, tax payers can choose between using their 2019 or 2020 income to select whichever provides the larger tax credit.
  2. Payroll Tax Deferral. For companies who offered a deferral in payroll taxes in Q4, the repayment of those amounts was extended from April to December 31, 2021.
  3. Charitable Donations. The CARES Act allows for a $300 above-the-line deduction for a 2020 cash charitable contribution. (Typically, you have to itemize to claim charitable deductions.) The new act extends this to 2021 and doubles the amount to $600 for married couples.
  4. Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs). Usually, any unused amount in an FSA would expire at the end of the year. The stimulus package will allow you to rollover your unused 2020 FSA into 2021 and your 2021 FSA into 2022.
  5. Medical Expense Deduction. In the past, medical expenses had to exceed 10% of adjusted gross income to be deductible. Going forward, the threshold will be 7.5% of AGI. This will help people with very large medical bills.
  6. Student Loans. Under the CARES Act, an employer could repay up to $5,250 of your student loans and this would not be counted as taxable income for 2020. This benefit will be extended through 2025.
  7. Lifetime Learning Credit (LLC). The LLC was increased and the deduction for qualified tuition and related expenses was cancelled. This will simplify taxes for most people, rather than having to choose one.

Read more: Tax Strategies Under Biden

Summary

The new COVID Relief Bill will benefit almost everyone and will certainly help the economy continue its recovery. For many Americans, the stimulus payments and continued unemployment benefits will be a vital lifeline. Certainly 2020 has taught all of us the importance of the financial planning. Having an emergency fund, living below your means, and sticking with your investment strategy have all been incredibly helpful in 2020.

Read more: 10 Questions to Ask a Financial Advisor

If you are thinking there’s room for improvement in your finances for 2021, it might be time for us to meet. Regardless of what the government or the economy does in 2021, your choices will be the most important factor in determining your long-term success. We will inevitably have ups and downs. The question is: When we fall, are we an egg, an apple, or a rubber ball? Do we break, bruise, or bounce back? Planning creates resilience.

Tax Strategies Under Biden

Tax Strategies Under Biden

With the Presidential election next month, investors may be wondering about what might happen to their taxes if Joe Biden were to win. Let’s take a look at his tax plan and discuss strategies which may make sense for high income investors to consider. I am sharing this now because we might consider steps to take before year end, which is a short window of time.

Let’s start with a few caveats. I am not endorsing one candidate or the other. I am not predicting Biden will win, nor am I bashing his proposals. This is not a political newsletter. Even if he is elected, it is uncertain that he will be able to enact any of these proposals and get them passed through the Senate. The discussion below is purely hypothetical at this point.

My job as a financial planner is to educate and advise my clients to navigate tax laws for their maximum legal benefit. I create value which can can save many thousands of dollars. Some of Biden’s proposals have the potential to raise taxes significantly on certain investors. If he does win, we may want to take steps before December 31, if we think his proposals could be enacted in 2021. I would do nothing now. I expect no significant changes under a continued Trump administration, but I will also be looking for tax strategies for that scenario.

Other Biden proposals will lower taxes for many people. For example, he proposes a $15,000 tax credit for first-time home buyers. I am largely ignoring the beneficial parts of his tax plan in this article, because those likely will not require advance planning.

Tax Changes Proposed by Biden

1. Tax increases on high earners. Biden proposes to increase the top tax rate from 37% back to 39.6%. He would eliminate the Qualified Business Income (QBI) Deduction, which would penalize most self-employed business owners. He would limit the value of itemized deductions to a 28% benefit. For those with incomes over $1 million, he proposes to increase the long-term capital gains and qualified dividend rate to the ordinary income rate, an increase from 20% to 39.6%, plus the 3.8% Medicare surtax. He proposes to add 12.4% in Social Security payroll taxes on income over $400,000.

Strategies:

  • Accelerate earnings, capital gains, and Roth Conversions into 2020 to take advantage of current rates.
  • Accelerate tax deductions into 2020, such as charitable donations or property taxes. Establish a Donor Advised Fund in 2020.
  • Increase use of tax-free municipal bonds, and use ETFs for lower taxable distributions. Shift dividend strategies into retirement accounts.
  • Use Annuities for tax deferral if you anticipate being in a lower bracket in retirement.

2. 26% retirement contribution benefit. Presently, your 401(k) contribution is pre-tax, so the tax benefit of a $10,000 contribution depends on your tax bracket. If you are in the 12% bracket, you would save $1,200 on your federal income taxes. If you’re in the 37% bracket, you’d save $3,700. Biden wants to replace tax deductibility with a flat 26% tax credit for everyone. On a $10,000 contribution to a 401(k), everyone would get the same $2,600 tax credit (reduction). This should incentivize lower income folks to put more into their retirement accounts, because their tax savings would go up, if they are in the 24% or lower bracket. For higher earners, however, this proposal is problematic. What if you only get a 26% benefit today, but will be in the 35% bracket in retirement? That would make a 401(k) contribution a guaranteed loss.

Strategies:

3. End the step-up in cost basis on inherited assets. Currently, when you inherit a house or a stock, the cost basis is reset to its value as of the date of death. Under Biden’s plan, the original cost basis will carry over upon inheritance.

Strategies:

  • If parents are in a lower tax bracket than their heirs, they may want to harvest long-term capital gains to prepay those taxes.
  • Life Insurance would become more valuable as death benefits are tax-free. Or Life Insurance proceeds could be used to pay the taxes that would eventually be due on an inherited business or asset. Read more: The Rate of Return of Life Insurance.

4. Cut the Estate Tax Exemption in half. Presently, the Estate/Gift Tax only applies on Estates over $11.58 million (2020). Biden wants to cut this in half to $5.79 million (per spouse).

Strategies:

  • If your Estate will be over $5.79 million, you may want to gift the maximum amount possible in 2020. Alternatively, strategies such as a Trust could be used to reduce estate taxes. (For example, the Intentionally Defective Grantor Trust (IDGT) or Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (GRAT).)
  • Be sure to use all of your annual gift tax exclusion, presently $15,000 per person.
  • Establish 529 Plans, which will be excluded from your estate.
  • Shift Life Insurance out of your Estate, using an Irrevocable Life Insurance Trust (ILIT).

While we don’t know the outcome of the election, there could be valuable tax strategies under Biden. We will continue to analyze economic proposals from both candidates to develop planning strategies for our clients. When there are significant changes in tax laws, we want to be ahead of the curve to take advantage wherever possible.

12% Roth Conversion

The 12% Roth Conversion

If you make less than $105,050, you’ve got to look into the 12% Roth Conversion. For a married couple, the 12% Federal Income tax rate goes all the way up to $80,250 for 2020. That’s taxable income. With a standard deduction of $24,800, a couple could make up to $105,050 and remain in the 12% bracket. Above those amounts, the tax rate jumps to 22%.

For those who are in the 12% bracket, consider converting part of your Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA each year. Convert only the amount which will keep you under the 12% limits. For example, if you have joint income of $60,000, you could convert up to $45,050 this year.

This will require paying some taxes today. But paying 12% now is a great deal. Once in the Roth, your money will be growing tax-free. There will be no Required Minimum Distributions on a Roth and your heirs can even inherit the Roth tax-free. Don’t forget that today’s tax rates are going to sunset after 2025 and the old rates will return. At 12%, a $45,050 Roth conversion would cost only $5,406 in additional taxes this year.

Take Advantage of the 12% Rate

If you have a large IRA or 401(k), the 12% rate is highly valuable. Use every year you can do a 12% Roth Conversion. Otherwise, you are going to have no control of your taxes once you begin RMDs. If you have eight years where you can convert $40,000 a year, that’s going to move $320,000 into a tax-free account. I have so many clients who don’t need their RMDs, but are forced to take those taxable distributions.

Here are some scenarios to consider where you might be in the 12% bracket:

  1. One spouse is laid off temporarily, on sabbatical, or taking care of young children. Use those lower income years to make a Roth Conversion. This could be at any age.
  2. One spouse has retired, the other is still working. If that gets you into the 12% bracket, make a conversion.
  3. Retiring in your 60’s? Hold off on Social Security so you can make Roth Conversions. Once you are 72, you will have both RMDs and Social Security. It is amazing how many people in their seventies are getting taxed on over $105,050 a year once they have SS and RMDs! These folks wish they had done Conversions earlier, because after 72 they are now in the 22% or 24% bracket.

Retiring Soon?

Considering retirement? Let’s say you will receive a $48,000 pension at age 65. (You are lucky to have such a pension – most workers do not!) For a married couple, that’s only $23,200 in taxable income after the standard deduction. Hold off on your Social Security and access your cash and bond holdings in a taxable account. Your Social Security benefit will grow by 8% each year. The 10 year Treasury is yielding 1.6% today. Spend the bonds and defer the Social Security.

Now you can convert $57,050 a year into your Roth from age 65 to 70. That will move $285,250 from your Traditional IRA to a Roth. Yes, that will be taxable at 12%. But at age 72, you will have a lower RMD – $11,142 less in just the first year.

When you do need the money after 72, you will be able to access your Roth tax-free. And at that age, with Social Security and RMDs, it’s possible you will now be in the 22% tax bracket. I have some clients in their seventies who are “making” over $250,000 a year and are now subject to the Medicare Surtax. Don’t think taxes go away when you stop working!

How to Convert

The key is to know when you are in the 12% bracket and calculate how much to convert to a Roth each year. The 12% bracket is a gift. Your taxes will never be lower than that, in my opinion. If you agree with that statement, you should be doing partial conversions each year. Whether that is $5,000 or $50,000, convert as much as you can in the 12% zone. You will need to be able to pay the taxes each year. You may want to increase your withholding at work or make quarterly estimated payments to avoid an underpayment penalty.

What if you accidentally convert too much and exceed the 12% limit? Don’t worry. It will have no impact on the taxes you pay up to the limit. If you exceed the bracket by $1,000, only that last $1,000 will be taxed at the higher 22% rate. Conversions are permanent. It used to be you could undo a conversion with a “recharacterization”, but that has been eliminated by the IRS.

While I’ve focused on folks in the 12% bracket, a Conversion can also be beneficial for those in the 22% bracket. The 22% bracket for a married couple is from $80,250 to $171,050 taxable income (2020). If you are going to be in the same bracket (or higher) in your seventies, then pre-paying the taxes today may still be a good idea. This will allow additional flexibility later by having lower RMDs. Plus, a 22% tax rate today might become 25% or higher after 2025! Better to pay 22% now on a lower amount than 25% later on an account which has grown.

A Roth Conversion is taxable in the year it occurs. In other words, you have to do it before December 31. A lot of tax professionals are not discussing Roth Conversions if they focus solely on minimizing your taxes paid in the previous year. But what if you want to minimize your taxes over the rest of your life? Consider each year you are eligible for a 12% Roth Conversion. Also, if you are working and in the 12% bracket, maybe you should be looking at the Roth 401(k) rather than the Traditional option.

Where to start? Contact me and we will go over your tax return, wage stubs, and your investment statements. From there, we can help you with your personalized Roth Conversion strategy.

Tax Planning

Tax Planning – What are the Benefits?

Taxes are your biggest expense. Tax Planning can help. A typical middle class tax payer may be in the 22% or 24% tax bracket, but Federal Income Taxes are only one piece of their total tax burden. They also pay 7.65% in Social Security and Medicare Taxes. If they’re self-employed, double that to 15.3%. Most of my clients here in Dallas pay $6,000 to $20,000 a year in property taxes, more if they also have a vacation home. After getting to pay taxes on their earnings, they are taxed another 8.25% when they spend money, through sales tax. 

High earners may pay a Federal rate of 35% or 37%, plus a Medicare surtax of 0.9% on earned income and 3.8% on investment income. There’s also capital gains tax of 15% or 20%. Business owners get to pay Franchise Tax and Unemployment Insurance to the state. Add it all up and your total tax bill is probably a third or more of your gross income.

I’m happy to pay my fair share. But I’m not looking to leave Uncle Sam a tip on top of what I owe, so I want make sure I don’t overpay. I help people with their investments, prepare to retire someday, and to make sure they don’t get killed on taxes. It’s vitally important.

The tax code is complex and changes frequently. We have talked about how the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act changes how you should approach tax deductions. This past month, I’ve been talking and writing about the new SECURE Act passed in December.

It’s February and people are receiving their W-2s and 1099s and starting to put together their 2019 tax returns. I like to look at my client tax returns. We can often find ways to help you reduce your tax burden and keep more of your hard-earned money, completely legally.

Two sets of eyes are better than one.

I’m not a tax preparer, and I don’t mean to suggest that your tax preparer is making mistakes. While I have, of course, seen a couple of errors over the years, they are rare. However, I think there is a benefit to having a second set of eyes on your tax return. I may look at things from a different perspective than your CPA or accountant. As a Certified Financial Planner professional and Chartered Financial Analyst, I have extensive training on Tax Planning and have been doing this for over 15 years.

Tax preparers are great at looking at the previous year and calculating what you owe. What I sometimes find is that they don’t always share proactive advice to help you reduce taxes going forward. 

For example, this month, I met with an individual and looked over his 2018 tax return. He would have qualified for the Savers Tax Credit but did not contribute to an IRA. I told him “your CPA probably mentioned this, but last year, if you had contributed $2,000 to a Roth IRA, you would have received a $1,000 Federal Tax Credit”. Nope, he had never heard about this from his long-time preparer, and let’s just say he was displeased. While his tax return was “correct”, it could have been better.

When you become a client of Good Life Wealth Management, I will review your tax return and look for strategies which could potentially save you a significant amount of money. Such as?

5 Areas of Tax Planning

1. Charitable Giving Strategies. It has become more difficult to itemize your deductions and get a tax savings for your charitable giving. We identify the most effective approach for your situation. For example, donating appreciated securities or bunching deductions into one year. If you’re 70 1/2, you could make QCDs from an IRA. Or we could front-load a Donor Advised Fund to take a deduction while you are in a higher tax bracket before retirement. If you are planning to make significant donations, I can help your money go father and have a bigger impact.

2. Tax-advantaged accounts: which accounts are you eligible for and will enable the greatest contribution? No one can tell without looking at your tax return. Let’s maximize your pre-tax contributions to company retirement plans, IRAs, Health Savings Accounts, and FSAs. Often someone thinks they are doing everything possible and we find an additional savings avenue for them or their spouse.

3. Investment Tax Optimization. Do you have a lot of interest income reported on Schedule B? Why are those bonds not in your IRA or retirement account?  Are your investments creating short-term gains in a taxable account? Do you have REITs which don’t qualify for the qualified dividend rate? You could benefit from Asset Location Optimization. 

Showing a lot of Capital Gains Distributions on Schedule D? Many Mutual Funds had huge distributions in 2019. Let’s look at Exchange Traded Funds which have little or no tax distributions until you sell. There may be more tax-efficient investments for your taxable accounts. Are you systematically harvesting losses annually?

4. If you make too much for a Roth IRA, are you a good candidate for a Backdoor Roth IRA?

5. Tax-Efficient Retirement Income. What is the most effective way to structure your withdrawals from retirement accounts and taxable accounts? When should you start pensions or Social Security? How can you minimize taxes in retirement?

I could go on about tax-exempt municipal bonds, tax-free 529 college savings plans, the Medicare surtax, or reducing taxes to your heirs. It’s a long list because almost every aspect of financial planning has a tax component to it. 

Most Advisors Aren’t Doing Tax Planning

Even though taxes are your biggest expense, a lot of financial advisors aren’t offering genuine tax planning. For some, it’s just not in their skill set, they only do investments. For a lot of national firms, management prohibits their advisors from offering tax advice for compliance reasons. Other “advisors” specialize in tax schemes which are designed primarily to sell you an insurance product for a commission. I’m in favor of the right tool for the job, but if you only sell hammers, every problem looks like a nail. 

Tax Planning is making sure that all the parts of your financial life are as tax-efficient as possible. If you’d like a review of your 2018 return before you complete your 2019 taxes, give me a call. I get a better understanding of a client’s situation by reviewing their taxes and I really enjoy digging into a tax return. 

While I can’t guarantee that we can save you a bunch of money on your taxes, we do often have ideas or suggestions to discuss with your tax preparer. That way you can participate more than just dropping off a pile of receipts. If you do your taxes yourself, as many do today, you can ask me “Are there any additional ways to reduce my taxes?” Let’s find out.