With all of the new changes in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), we’re looking very thoroughly at how this will impact retirement planning. Some of the impacts are direct and immediate, but we are also considering what might be secondary consequences of the new rules in the years ahead.
Although taxes will be slightly lower and more simple for many middle class retirees, the tax changes may mean that some old strategies are no longer effective or that new methods can help reduce taxes or improve retirement readiness. Here are seven things to consider if you are now retired or looking to possibly retire in the next decade.
1. Plan ahead for RMDs. The new lower tax rates will sunset after 2026 and the higher 2017 rates will return. Once you are past age 70 1/2, retirees must take Required Minimum Distributions and must have started Social Security. There are many retirees in their seventies who actually have more income, and therefore way more taxes, than they require to meet their needs. I think we should be doing much more planning in our fifties and sixties to try to reduce retirement taxes, because once you are 70 1/2, you have no control.
If you want to reduce your future RMDs, consider doing partial Roth Conversions before age 70 1/2 – converting a small part of your IRA each year, within the limits of your current tax bracket. This is valuable if you now are in a lower tax bracket, 10% to 24%, which is scheduled to rise after 2026.
If you are retiring soon, consider delaying Social Security and starting first with withdrawals from your retirement accounts. Withdrawing cash for several years can help reduce future RMDs, and delaying Social Security benefits past Full Retirement Age provides an 8% annual increase in benefits. That’s a rate of return that is higher than our projected returns on a Balanced (50/50) portfolio. If you delay from age 66 to 70, you’ll see a 32% increase in your Social Security benefit, which reduces longevity risk. Social Security is guaranteed for life, but withdrawals from your portfolio are not!
When higher rates tax return, your (delayed) Social Security benefits are taxable at a maximum of 85% of your benefit, whereas, 100% of your IRA distributions are taxable as ordinary income.
2. Roth 401(k). If you are in a moderate tax bracket today because of the TCJA, you might prefer to contribute to a Roth 401(k) rather than a Traditional 401(k). You don’t get a tax deduction today, but the Roth will grow tax-free and there are no RMDs on a Roth. Therefore, having $24,000 in a Roth is worth more than having $24,000 in a Traditional IRA. In retirement, if you’re in the 25% tax bracket, a $24,000 Traditional account will net you only $18,000 after tax.
Rather than looking to convert your IRA to a Roth after it has grown, the most cost effective time to fund a Roth is likely at the beginning. If you currently have substantial assets in a traditional 401(k) or IRA, consider the Roth option for your new contributions.
3. Second Homes less appealing. The new tax law has placed a cap of $10,000 on the deductibility of state and local taxes. If you own a second home, or are considering purchasing one, this cap may make it more expensive.
Many retirees have paid off their primary residence and then use a home equity loan to purchase a second property. Starting in 2018, you are no longer able to deduct home equity loans. This makes it less attractive to use a home equity loan (or line of credit), and it also makes paying off your mortgage less appealing. If you have a mortgage, it can still be deductible, but if you pay it off, you cannot then borrow from your equity in a tax beneficial way.
If you were previously paying more than $10,000 in state and local taxes, you will either be capped to $10,000, or more likely, be unable to deduct ANY of those taxes, because you are under the standard deduction of $24,000 for a married couple. Going forward, I think more retirees will find it financially appealing to downsize and minimize their housing expenses since they are effectively getting zero tax benefit for their property taxes and mortgage interest.
4. Charitable Strategies. Another casualty of the increased $12,000 / $24,000 standard deduction: Charitable Giving. Most retirees will no longer receive any tax deduction for their donations. Two planning solutions: establish a Donor Advised Fund, or if over age 70 1/2, make use of the Qualified Charitable Distributions from your IRA. We have begun several QCDs this month for our clients!
5. In-State Municipal Bonds. For high income retirees in states with an income tax, it is not difficult to exceed the $10,000 cap on the SALT taxes. In the past, many of these high earners invested in National municipal bonds to get better diversification, even if it meant that they paid some state income tax on their municipal bonds. “At least you are getting a Federal Tax Deduction for paying the State Income Tax”, they were told. Going forward, they won’t receive that benefit. As a result, I expect that more high earning retirees will want to restrict their municipal bond purchases to those in their home state, where they will not owe any State or Federal tax on this income (especially New York, California, Illinois, etc.). Here in Texas, with no state income tax, we will continue to buy municipal bonds from any and all states.
6. Estate Tax. The TCJA doubled the Estate Tax Exemption from $5.5 million to $11 million per person, or $22 million for a married couple. Now there are only a very small number of people who really need to worry about Estate Taxes. Most retirees will not need a Trust today. (If you might still be subject to the Estate Tax, we can definitely help you.)
7. Health Insurance Costs Will Rise. The repeal of the Individual Mandate of the Affordable Care Act will allow many healthy young people to skip having health insurance. I think that’s a mistake – no one plans to get sick or injured. But what it means for society is a loss of healthier individuals from the insurance risk pool. Adults between age 55 and 65 should expect to see large increases in their individual insurance premiums. More people will be unable to retire until age 65, when they become eligible for Medicare, because they cannot afford the rising individual health insurance premiums. Just this week, a client informed me that they are delaying their retirement for one year because their health insurance bill is increasing from $575 a month to nearly $800.
Wondering how the new tax law will impact your retirement plan? Let’s get together and take a look. Even if your retirement is years away, there are steps we can take today so you can feel confident and prepared that your finances will all be in place when you need them.