5 Ways to Save Money When Adopting a Pet

Black Lab Puppy

Americans love their pets, and although they repay every penny with their love and devotion, the amount we spend on our pets can be astronomical.  I’ve been a volunteer in animal rescue since 1997 and here are my top five suggestions for ways to save money if you’re looking to add a four-legged companion to your family.

1) Adopt Don’t Shop.  Puppies in a pet store or from a breeder can cost hundreds or thousands of dollars.  Adopting from a shelter may cost a fraction of this amount, and often, a shelter pet has already been vaccinated, wormed, and neutered, saving you $300 to $500 in initial vet bills.  Additionally, adopting a shelter pet saves a life, as currently, approximately 4 million unwanted pets are euthanized each year in the US. Take your time and make sure the dog or cat will be a good fit for your household – many pets are returned or wind up in shelters when people underestimate how much time and effort it will take to train a puppy to become a well-behaved adult dog.

2) Crate Train.  Although cute, puppies love to chew and can be quite destructive when left unsupervised.  They are naturally attracted to shoes, furniture, and other expensive items in your home.  Besides being costly to replace these items, it can also be dangerous for dogs to ingest these items.  There have been many expensive vet visits from dogs who got sick from eating something in their home that should have been off-limits.  Save yourself this headache and expense by buying a crate to keep your dog from causing trouble when you’re not home.  This has the additional benefit of helping with house training, which will save your carpets!  Over time, dogs really do start to like their crates.  My dog goes into his crate immediately when we get ready to leave the house – it’s his safe place.  Read up on crate training.  The $50-100 you spend on a crate may save you hundreds or thousands in preventable destructive behavior.

3) Ask Friends for a Veterinarian Recommendation.  The price of vaccines, neutering, or heartworm treatment can vary significantly from vet to vet.  Ask friends for a recommendation for a low-cost vet.  Some clinics offer one or two days a month that they provide discounts on vaccines.  Ask your shelter if they know of any free or low-cost vaccination or neutering clinics in your city.  Still, make sure to develop a relationship with one veterinarian who knows your dog or cat, to monitor changes in your pet’s health over time and make sure you stay up to date with any needed care.

4) Consider a Mixed Breed Dog.  A lot of people want a specific kind of dog, but unfortunately, many breeds have a higher likelihood of developing certain health issues.  For example, some breeds are prone to hip dysplasia, cancer, or ear infections.  These can be expensive to treat and often result in a shorter life expectancy for the animal.  Mixed breed dogs tend to be healthier, live longer, and have fewer of these genetic predispositions for certain ailments.  If you do want a specific breed, you can still probably find one through a local shelter or rescue group.

5) Buy Smart.  A 15 pound bag of my dog food costs $35, but a 30 pound bag only costs $45.  Buy the larger bags and use an airtight storage container.  Buy a high quality food and skip the expensive treats, such as rawhides, that have limited nutritional value and can upset a sensitive stomach.  Keep up with heartworm preventative and flea/tick medicine.  Although it is one of the largest ongoing costs, these preventative medicines are much less expensive than treatment, should your pet become sick.  And here in Texas, even indoor dogs have a very high likelihood of developing heartworms without prevention.

If you are looking for a pet, let me know and I will look for a good fit for you at Operation Kindness.  We also have fosters in our home several times a year, if you are interested in a puppy.

Machiavelli and Happiness in an Age of Materialism

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Hence it is to be remarked that, in seizing a state, the usurper ought to examine closely into all those injuries which it is necessary for him to inflict, and to do them all at one stroke so as not to have to repeat them daily; and thus by not unsettling men he will be able to reassure them, and win them to himself by benefits. He who does otherwise, either from timidity or evil advice, is always compelled to keep the knife in his hand; neither can he rely on his subjects, nor can they attach themselves to him, owing to their continued and repeated wrongs. For injuries ought to be done all at one time, so that, being tasted less, they offend less; benefits ought to be given little by little, so that the flavour of them may last longer.

– Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince (1505)

Machiavelli’s political treatise, The Prince, remains an interesting, at times brutish, study of human nature 500 years after being written. If you’ll grant me some liberty in interpretation, his advice to experience pain quickly and reward slowly applies nicely to today’s field of behavioral finance.

The Hedonic Treadmill is a psychological premise that people require constant effort to maintain satisfaction, or “happiness”, if you will. A related concept is Habituation, which is that we tend to have a baseline state of happiness, and that when events move us above or below that level, we gradually become used to the new situation and revert back to our previous levels of satisfaction. Both principles suggest that to increase and maintain happiness, we have to work at it continually.

Consumer spending is important to our economy, but at the household level, we’re spending more and more money to realize a middle class lifestyle. Economists look at things like the change in the price of a gallon of milk as inflation, but it might also be relevant to consider how living has changed for the typical family. In 1973, the average new house size was 1,660 square feet, compared to 2,679 square feet last year. Over the same time, the average household size has shrunk from 3.01 persons to 2.54. Today, we have many more bills – cell phone, internet, satellite TV – than existed 40 years ago.  These are all great improvements over previous technology, but the cost of a middle class lifestyle has likely grown well in excess of the reported inflation rates in the CPI.  But are we happier for the increased spending?

We experience a brief increase in happiness from buying new items, but habituation has two effects: (1) the enjoyment we get from a new item quickly wears off, and (2) once we do become accustomed to the “bigger and better” item, we are generally unwilling to replace it with a lower cost option. Once we have a smart phone, there’s no going back to a regular phone. After living in a 3,000 square foot house, a 2,000 square foot house feels too small. If you’ve owned a luxury car, you won’t want to drive a simpler car. Will a Kia get you to work as effectively as a Mercedes? Yes, of course, but that’s not the reason we buy an expensive car. We decide what we want and then we rationalize why we have to have it.

I chose the name Good Life Wealth Management, because I view money as a tool to help us enjoy life. Not in the materialistic sense of fancy cars or fine wine, but in the holistic pursuit of finding meaning and balance. The Good Life, then, is not achieved by the acquisition of items, but by enjoying a state of financial independence and using those resources to live fully. It’s my job to help investors find that freedom and I love my job. It’s the last thing I think about at night and the first thing I think about in the morning.

I share the following six principles to define what we stand for. This is how we can seek happiness and financial security in an age of materialism.  If these make sense to you, then I think our financial planning approach and sense of purpose will resonate strongly with your goals.

  1. Spend money on experiences rather than things. I went on a hot air balloon ride this summer. If I considered the cost for a one-hour flight, it was perhaps expensive. However, I have since spent many hours thinking about that wonderful experience and enjoying my photographs of that day. I’ll always have those memories.
  2. As Machiavelli suggests, take pain quickly and rewards slowly. If you decide to make spending cuts to be able to save more, make the cuts deep and immediate. If you want to save an additional $1,000 a month, you’re not going to get there by giving up a daily coffee. And you’re setting yourself up for continual frustration because you will have to make that sacrifice every day going forward. By making many small changes, it will feel like a death by 1000 cuts. Instead, have the courage to make a big move like downsizing or finding a different job. Once you adjust to the new change, it will be fine and it is not going to impact your happiness in the long-run. (To see an extreme example of a human’s ability to adapt, two friends recently completed a Buy Nothing Year, with interesting reflections on their experience.) Take your rewards slowly to enjoy them. Feed your Hedonic Treadmill gradually.
  3. Saving is not self-denial. Some people view saving and investing from a negative view – they only do it out of fear. Fear of falling behind, fear of not having enough, fear of dying broke. No one wants to experience any of those unpleasant things, but fear will only motivate you to save so much. And you’ll resent the saving because you’re doing it because you have to and not because you want to. Saving can be its own reward. Make it fun and a game to see how much you can save. If you want to be financially independent, take the steps that will get you there as soon as possible. Do it for yourself – the more you save, the faster you achieve your next goal. Be laser-focused, driven, and determined when you have a goal. Saving is a virtuous cycle when it becomes an ingrained habit.
  4. Money doesn’t define us and our value is not a number. If I did lose everything, I know I could make it all back. And I’d make it back even faster because I wouldn’t make all the mistakes I did the first time around! That doesn’t mean it’s okay to be reckless with investing, only that money is not the most important thing in life. And once you have money-making knowledge and skills, you realize that wealth is abundantly available for those willing to save and invest.
  5. Our concept of frugality was framed by our parents or grandparents who lived through the Great Depression in the 1930’s. They learned to be self-reliant and strong, but for some, those tough times created permanent fear and mistrust. (Can you feel fulfilled and happy if you bury cash in coffee cans in your back yard because you think banks will lose your money?)  The new frugality is about simplicity, optimism, and making the decision to place financial independence ahead of consumerism. It’s a positive choice and not a negative reaction based on hoarding, fear of loss, or mistrust of the system. Used properly, frugality is having the maturity to make decisions today that will be smart 10 years from now. It’s a recognition that “more stuff” does not create lasting happiness.
  6. Tis better to give than receive. Donate, volunteer, make a difference. Happiness comes from a sense of purpose and living to the best of your abilities. Daniel Kahneman found that higher income increased happiness, but only up to about $75,000. Above that level, individual differences prevailed. Money does not create happiness, but we do know what is the most common cause for unhappiness: loneliness. Connect with people. Use your money to visit friends, take someone to lunch, or travel and make new friends.

Is your money helping you move closer towards financial independence or is the rising tide of middle class materialism keeping those goals a distant dream?  If you’re not sure where to begin, give me a call and let’s get to work on your financial plan.

Catching Up for Retirement

Mossy Trail
A common rule of thumb is to save 10% of your income each year for retirement. If you started in your 20’s and invested for 30-40 years, this may well be adequate. But if you currently aren’t saving at this level, 10% can seem like a daunting amount. And if you got a late start or had some financial set-backs along the way, you may need to save even more.

What can a late starter do to get caught up on their retirement goals? Here are 5 ideas to help you take positive steps forward.

1) Save half your raise. When you get a raise, before you receive your next paycheck, increase your 401(k) contribution by 50% of the raise. You’ll still see an increase in your paycheck, but have a better chance of keeping the money which is automatically withheld, rather than taking the cash and hoping to have some left over to invest at the end of the year. This strategy works well for careers which have predictable, steady raises.

2) Downsize. If your kids are out of the house, you may not be needing all the space in your current home. By downsizing to a smaller home, you may be able to free up some home equity and invest those proceeds into investments with a potentially higher return. Additionally, a smaller home will have much lower expenses, including utilities, insurance, and property taxes.

If you really want to make a big impact on your finances, you have to look at the big expenses. For someone in their 50’s or 60’s, cutting out a daily latte just isn’t going to make enough of a difference. Many people have an emotional attachment to their home, which is completely understandable. However, if downsizing makes sense for you, you should try to make that change as soon as possible. Your home is one of your largest expenses and you want to make sure that it isn’t holding you back from achieving other important goals.

3) Spousal IRAs. Most people are aware of the catch-up provisions available after age 50 in their 401(k) or 403(b) plans at work, but many couples aren’t aware of their eligibility to fund an IRA for a spouse who doesn’t work or who doesn’t have a retirement plan. For 2014, the IRA contribution limits are $5,500 or $6,500 if over age 50. Here are the rules for some common scenarios:

– If neither spouse is covered by an employer plan at work, then both can contribute to a Traditional IRA and deduct the contribution, with no income restrictions. Both can contribute to an IRA, even if only one spouse works.
– If only one spouse is covered by an employer retirement plan, then the other spouse can contribute to a deductible Traditional IRA, if their joint MAGI is below $181,000 (2014).
– My personal favorite: if either spouse does not have any IRAs, that spouse can contribute to a Back-Door Roth IRA. There are no income restrictions to this strategy.

4) Social Security for divorcees. A common reason why individuals are behind in their retirement saving is divorce. If you were married for at least 10 years, you are eligible for a Social Security benefit based on your ex-spouse’s earnings. Many divorcees are not aware of this because spousal benefits are never listed on your Social Security statement.

The spousal benefit does not impact your ex-spouse in any way and they will not know you are receiving a spousal benefit. You do not have to wait for (or even know if) your ex-spouse has started to receive their benefits. We’ve often found that someone who was out of the workforce to raise a family or had a limited earnings history will have a very small Social Security benefit based on their own earnings and isn’t aware they are eligible for a benefit from a high-earning ex-spouse.

Details: you must be at least 62, unmarried, and the spousal benefit will only apply if greater than your own benefit. To apply, you will need your ex-spouse’s name, date of birth, social security number, beginning/ending dates of marriage, and place of marriage.
See: http://www.ssa.gov/retire2/divspouse.htm

5) Don’t get aggressive. For many investors, the temptation is to try to eke out extra return from their investment portfolio to make up for the fact that they are behind. They take a very aggressive approach or try to day trade. This is very risky and the results can be devastating. Invest appropriately for your risk tolerance, objectives, and time horizon, but stay diversified and don’t gamble your nest egg.

Who’s Going to Pay for Your Retirement, Freelancer?

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A regular employee has a steady paycheck which makes planning and budgeting easy.  For a freelancer, your income may fluctuate greatly from month to month and be very difficult to predict from year to year.  You may not know what work you will be doing six months from now and that’s likely to be a more immediate concern than retirement which could be 20 or 30 years away. 

It’s often impractical for a freelancer to save up a large lump sum investment each year.  What does work for freelancers is to “pay yourself first” by setting up a monthly automatic investment program into an Individual Retirement Account (IRA).  This forces you to budget for retirement savings just as you would do for any other bill, such as your car payment or rent. It is easier to plan for smaller monthly contributions and this creates the same regular investment plan as an employee who is participating in a 401(k).

The maximum annual contribution for an IRA in 2014 is $5,500, which works out to $458 per month.  If you aren’t able to contribute the maximum, that’s okay, there are mutual funds that will let you invest with as little as $100 a month.  The most important thing is to get started and not put it off for another year.  You can always increase your contributions in the future as you are able.  If you are over the age of 50, you can contribute an additional $1,000 a year into an IRA, a total of $6,500 a year, or $541 per month. 

If you can use a tax deduction, open a Traditional IRA.  If you don’t need the tax deduction, and meet the income limitations, select a Roth IRA.  Additionally, there is another reason the Roth IRA is very popular with freelancers.  Many freelancers worry about hitting a slow patch in their business and needing to tap into their savings.  A nice benefit of the Roth IRA – which may help you sleep well at night – is that you can access your principal without tax or penalty at any time.  So if you do have an emergency in the future, you would be able to withdraw funds from your Roth IRA.  (Principal is the amount you contributed; if you withdraw your earnings (the gains), the earnings portion would be subject to income tax and a 10% penalty if you are under age 59 1/2.)  

If you are able to contribute more than $5,500 (or $6,500 if over age 50), the SEP-IRA is your best choice.  You could contribute as much as $52,000 into a SEP this year, if your net income is over $260,000.  The contribution for a SEP is roughly 20% of your net profit each year, so it works great for freelancers who want to save as much as possible.  Why not just recommend a SEP for all freelancers?  The challenge with a SEP is that it is impossible to know the exact dollar amount you can contribute until you actually prepare your tax return each year.  That’s why most SEP contributions are not made until March or April of the following year.  For freelancers who are getting started with saving for retirement, your best bet is to first maximize your contributions to a Traditional or Roth IRA through automatic monthly deposits.  Then if you want to make an additional investment, you can also fund a SEP at tax time.  A lot of investors assume that you cannot do a SEP if you do a Roth or Traditional IRA, but that is not the case, you can do both. 

Being a freelancer can be very rewarding and fulfilling, but it does carry some additional financial responsibilities.  You don’t have an employer to pay half of your social security taxes or to provide any retirement or insurance benefits.  Unlike traditional employees, however, many freelancers don’t go from working full-time one day to completely retired the next day.  What I often see is that many freelancers choose to keep working but reduce their schedule and select only the projects which really interest them.  In this manner, they are never fully retired, but still stay active and have multiple sources of income.  Regardless of your plans or intentions for retirement, my job is to help you become financially independent, so you work because you want to and not because you have to.